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International Register

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A reminder to those who do not pay attention to the harms caused by the divergence between believer
A reminder to those who do not pay attention to the harms caused by the divergence between believer - Post view
Region / Country - Africa > Mali
Year of Registration 2017
Possessing Institutions Ahmed Baba Institute of Higher Learning and Islamic Research
Management Institution Ahmed Baba Institute of Higher Learning and Islamic Research
Reminder to those who do not pay attention to the harms caused by the divergence between believer
(Tadkirat al gāfilin ‘anqubhihtilāf al- mu’minin)

Sheik Al-ḤāğUmārTall, founder of the Toucouleur Empire, was born in Halwar near Podor in Futa Toro (Senegal) around 1797. During his travels in pursuit of science, he met ͑AbdūlKarīm ibn Aḥmad al-Nāqil al-Fūtağalūnī, a pulaar from Fouta Djallon, who introduced him to the Tariqa Tijaniyya and who was himself introduced to it by Sheik Mawlūd Vāl, who had been introduced to the Tariqa Tijaniyya by Sīdī Muḥammad al-Ḥāfiẓ al-Šanqayṭī, a follower of sheik Aḥmadal-Tiğānī, creator of the ṭarīqat. So this was his first connection to the ṭarīqat, the second being Muḥammadal-Ġālī, follower of the creator of the ṭarīqat, after he had renewed his affiliation with him during his pilgrimage to Mecca.          

At around thirty years old, Al-ḤāğUmārTall decided to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, taking the sub-Saharan route which led him to Sokoto in Nigeria via Segou and Macina. On his arrival, he discovered that there was discord between Muḥammad ibn ͑Uṯmān Dan Fodio, the emir of Sokoto and Muḥammad al-Amīn al-Kānimī, the emir of Borno. It was obvious that there was a difference of opinion between the two emirates regarding the legitimacy of Jihad (holy war) against Muslims. In other words, whether or not according to Islamic law it is legal to declare Jihad against Muslims for not observing some of the precepts of Islam. The emirs from Sokoto believed they had the right to wage Jihad on the Muslims from Borno who, in their opinion, did not practise true Islam and were quick to form alliances with non Muslims against them, whilst the emirs of Borno believed that Jihad has no place in Islam.          

Al-ḤāğUmārTall wrote this work when he returned from Mecca to restore peace between them. This is what he had to say on the subject: ‘During my long journey to the holy sites of Islam, I passed through the countries of Hausa, where I discovered a raging conflict between our Muslim brothers. I wanted to restore peace between them but so as not to get caught up in the matter and be held up on my holy voyage to Mecca, I decided to delay this reconciliation until my return from Mecca. When I left them, I did so sad and not without crying.   On my return, I learnt that this discord (fitna) had not ended. And so I said to myself that it was now absolutely crucial to begin reconciliation and put a stop to this animosity. This noble undertaking seemed impossible in the eyes of the protagonists of the conflict. Despite the fact that this was a delicate matter and the circumstances were delicate, I became obsessed with the idea of starting a constructive dialogue between my Muslim brothers and, spurred on by various verses and hadiths advocating reconciliation, I set out to do just that.’          

Al-ḤāğUmār created his work when he returned from Mecca in Fezzan (Libya) between Tiğirih and Tubu. He did so in what were extremely delicate circumstances because he was preoccupied with the illnesses of his brother and his wife who were both, at the time of writing, close to death; his brother did actually die. He was also exhausted and weakened by his long voyages. He also said, ‘I did not write any of these verses sitting down but rather I wrote them all whilst walking; I didn’t consult any books while writing and I am constantly amazed by this work which exists solely by the grace of Allah, the generous one.’